أحمد مصطفى: #العفو عن #سنودن مقابل #السكوت

December 22, 2013
أحمد مصطفى: #العفو عن #سنودن مقابل #السكوت

وباختصار وبترجمة بسيطة للكلام اسفله المعروض على روسيا اليوم الإنجليزية “أن #وكالة_الأمن_القومى_الأمريكية عرضت العفو عن ضابط المخابرات #ادوارد_سنودن والذى فضح تنصت امريكا على العالم فى منتصف هذا العام والذى لجأ لـ #روسيا مؤخرا، من الجرائم والتهم المدان فيها #خيانة_الواجب هههههههههههه كونه ضابط بالمخابرات مقابل ألا يفصح ويفضح فى مؤتمرات او خلافه أو من خلال تصريحات صحفية الكثير من فضائح #تنصت و #تجسس_أمريكا على دول العالم وكان طبعا للعالم العربى نصيب لا بأس به من تنصت أمريكا ولم نعر الموضوع اهتمام لأننا #دول_خايبة ولا زلنا نشم مؤخرة (( هههههههه أمريكا – أما روسيا والصين وايران وامريكا اللاتينية بيعطوهم بالحذاء ولهذا ما أحد بيغلبهم لا بالسياسة ولا بالإقتصاد

أحمد مصطفى: باحث اقتصادى وسياسى

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أحمد مصطفى: أكبر كذبة – “أمريكا تحترم حقوق الإنسان”

December 22, 2013

أكبر كذبة – “أمريكا تحترم حقوق الإنسان”

ماشى طيب لو #امريكا فعلا بتحترم #الإعلان_العالمى_لحقوق_الإنسان:
لماذا الى الان تضطهد أمريكا الامريكان من #اصل_افريقى ومن #اصول_عربية وما حدش يقولى اصل #اوباما بقى رئيسا و #كونداليزا_رايس و #كولين_باول وهؤلاء ألغاز كبيرة داخل النظام الديكتاتورى الأمريكى لانك لكى تصبح رئيسا لا بد ان تعترف بـ #الكيان_الصهيونى ويكون لديك ما لا يقل عن #60_مليون_دولار لتدخل الحملات الرئاسية واشياء اخرى وايضا #وكالة_الأمن_القومى و #السى_اى_ايه يكونوا راضيين عنك؟

نقطة اخرى – لماذا لا يوجد #يسار داخل امريكا او حركات يسارية او احزاب ولماذا سمح النظام الأمريكى بـ #المكارثية فى الظهور فى الخمسينات من القرن الماضى؟
نقطة ثالثة – لماذا النظام الأمريكى لم يوقع الى الآن على ميثاق #السيداو الخاص بحقوق المرأة؟

ولماذا لا توجد #شفافية فى الإعلام فى امريكا؟

لماذا تسيطر امريكا على المنظمات الدولية واجهزتها وخصوصا #مجلس_الأمن – لماذا أمريكا أكبر مدين فى العالم ولم يحقق فى انتهاكات #جورج_دبليو_بوش والإنتهاكات الإقتصادية والفساد الإقتصادى وعلاقته بمجلس ادارة #بنك_اوف_امريكا و #سيتى_جروب و #ليمان_بروز وكذلك انتهاكات #صندوق_النقد_الدولى و #البنك_الدولى

النقطة الأكثر واقعية لماذا امريكا تدخل فى شئون الشعوب الأخرى والدول الأخرى بدعوى #حماية_الأمن_القومى الداخلى؟ لماذا ضربت كل من #الصومال و #افغانستان و #العراق وحاليا #باكستان و #اليمن دون ادنى ذنب بعد تبنيها لـ #القاعدة و #بن_لادن والقصة معروفة؟ لماذا انشات امريكا وشريكتها القذرة بريطانيا #القاعدة من تيار الإخوان؟ ولماذا تستخدم تيار الإخوان القذر فى العالم العربى والإسلامى؟ ولماذا لم تغلق #جوانتانامو
وبعد كل هذه الإنتهاكات تقولون امريكا تحترم حقوق الإنسان – ما تزعلش منى كلام فارغ

أحمد مصطفى – باحث اقتصادى سياسى

ِAhmed Moustafa: USA is the head of economic corruption worldwide

December 22, 2013

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USA is the head of economic corruption worldwide
الولايات المتحدة رأس الفساد الإقتصادى فى العالم

A couple of days before, we heard about the bankruptcy of Detroit, the castle of cars industry in USA that belongs to Michigan State, and the indebtedness of Detroit amounted to US$ 18 Billion for accumulated reasons started from the beginning of this 21st century.

قبل بضعة أيام، سمعنا عن إفلاس ديترويت، قلعة صناعة السيارات في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية والتي تنتمي إلى ولاية ميشيغان، حيث بلغت مديونية ديترويت حوالى 18 مليار دولار أمريكي لأسباب متراكمة من بداية هذه القرن الحادى والعشرين.

Whereas the main creditor that represented in Bank of America is possessing 75% of each US$ according to a request of protection of bankruptcy presented from its side, and a lot of economic analysts and experts thought that Mr. Snyder the governor of Detroit was mistaken in approving the bankruptcy of the city, because it will affect negatively on the funds of the retired and jobless people, who will be affected negatively and directly from such court decision, therefore there was no a humanitarian dimension, that made them bearing the corruption of the corruption of the government.

في حين أن الدائن الرئيسي الذي تمثل في بنك أوف أميركا يمتلك 75٪ من كل دولار أمريكي داخل فى ديون المدينة، وذلك وفقا لطلب الحماية من الإفلاس الذى قدم من جانبه، والكثير من المحللين الاقتصاديين والخبراء يعتقد أن السيد سنايدر محافظ ديترويت كان مخطئا في الموافقة على إعلان إفلاس المدينة، لأنه سوف يؤثر سلبا على صناديق المتقاعدين والعاطلين عن العمل، الذين سيتأثروا سلبا وبشكل مباشر من قرار المحكمة هذا، وبالتالي لم يكن هناك بعد إنساني، التي جعلتهم يتحملون فساد الحكومة.

Bearing in mind that there are other 5 cities are exposed to bankruptcy like Detroit, also 35% of the people of Detroit are surviving under poverty edge, and then such city cannot be transferred so easily to another business activity as Snyder mentioned, because it is the car fabrication city and instead of saying such statement, he should make a profound case-study with the investors in the city especially General Motors and Ford in order to make the city attracting the investments again in the same field and make it more competitive comparing to both of Far-East and European Union.

ومع الوضع فى الإعتبار أن هناك5 مدن أخرى ستتعرض للافلاس مثل ديترويت، وأيضا 35٪ من سكان ديترويت تحت حافة الفقر، ومن ثم مثل هذه المدينة لا يمكن نقلها بسهولة إلى نشاط تجاري آخر كما ذكر سنايدر، لأنها مدينة تصنيع السيارات وبدلا من أن يصرح بمثل هذا البيان، وعليه يجب إجراء دراسة حالة عميقة مع المستثمرين في المدينة وخاصة جنرال موتورز وفورد من أجل جعل المدينة جاذبة للاستثمارات مرة أخرى في نفس المجال وجعلها أكثر قدرة على المنافسة مقارنة إلى كل من الشرق الأقصى والاتحاد الأوروبي.

On the other hand, we heard in some economic news in USA that the indicator of the unemployment is improved, and such improvement is better than 6 years before !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!, I do not know how, despite the same reasons of corruption in USA still existed.

من ناحية أخرى، سمعنا في بعض الأخبار الاقتصادية في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية أن مؤشر البطالة قد تحسن، وهذا التحسن هو أفضل من 6 سنوات سابقة !!!!!!!!!!، وأنا لا أعرف كيف، على الرغم من أن نفس أسباب الفساد في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية لا تزال موجودة.

The big problem is that the first news released and revealed worldwide without any simple economic analysis concerning why that happened as follows:-

المشكلة الكبرى هي أن الخبر الأول نشر في جميع أنحاء العالم دون أي تحليل اقتصادي بسيط بشأن لماذا حدث ذلك على النحو التالي:-

External Reasons:
USA being involved in unjustified wars against this illusionary entity that called terrorism in both Iraq and Afghanistan just for supremacy and controlling oil and gas in our region, and we have a lot said before, whereas the cost was about US$ 12 Trillion of the international economy, the wars induced by energy, weapons and zionist lobbies in USA, the matter that made most of the well-known US banks and financial institutes suffer and bankrupted (Leman Broz and Citi Group are very evident examples).

أسباب خارجية:
تورط الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية في حروب غير مبررة ضد هذا الكيان الوهمي المسمى الإرهاب في كل من العراق وأفغانستان فقط من أجل التفوق فقط، والسيطرة على النفط والغاز في منطقتنا، ونحن لدينا أدلة وقلنا الكثير من قبل، في حين كانت التكلفة حوالي 12 تريليون دولار من الاقتصاد الدولى، والحروب الناجمة بتحريض من لوبيات الطاقة والأسلحة وجماعات الضغط الصهيونية في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية، الأمر الذي جعل معظم البنوك والمؤسسات المالية المعروفة تعانى وتفلس (وليمان بروز وسيتي جروب هي أمثلة واضحة جدا فى هذا الصدد).

Internal Reasons:
Corruption especially that took place during the time of Bush, the matter that made the house in Detroit for 1 US$ in 2007, the matter that made GW Bush the war criminal oppressing the Gulf States Regimes of KSA, Kuwait, Qatar and UAE in 2008 and capturing a royalty amounted to US$ 4 Trillion to rescue USA in whole from bankruptcy, the matter that televised on most of Arab TVs but nobody made a comment.

أسباب داخلية:
الفساد وخاصة الذي وقع في عهد بوش، الأمر الذي جعل البيت في ديترويت يعرض للبيع مقابل 1 دولار أمريكي في عام 2007، الأمر الذي جعل جورج دبليو بوش مجرم الحرب أن يفرض على الأنظمة دول الخليج السعودية والكويت وقطر والإمارات العربية المتحدة في عام 2008 إتاوة بلغت 4 تريليون دولار لإنقاذ الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية كليا من الإفلاس، الأمر الذي تم بثه على معظم التلفزيونات العربية بدون أى تعليق.

Not respecting the USA judiciary and laws against corruption because many of BOD members of US financial institutions had not been exposed to even interrogations concerning the relationships between G W Bush regime and them, and the most evident case the Chairman of Leman Broz Bank who captured about US$ 50 Billion and nobody could even arrest him, therefore where is the state of law in USA? I am still insisting on my question this.

عدم احترام السلطة القضائية وقوانين مكافحة الفساد الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية لأن العديد من أعضاء مجلس إدارة المؤسسات المالية في الولايات المتحدة لم يتم إستجوابهم حتى بشأن العلاقة بين نظام جورج دبليو بوش وبينهم، والحالة الأكثر وضوحا رئيس مجلس إدارة ليمان بروز الذي استولى على 50 مليار دولار ولم يستطع أحد القبض عليه، وبالتالي أين هى دولة القانون في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية؟ ما زلت مصرا على سؤالي هذا.

Finally, where is the role of Human Rights organizations in such corruption issues or such organizations interfere and involve in the other countries affairs except USA especially “Human Rights Watch”!!!!!!!!, as the current dirty US foreign policy, as well as, where is the left in USA? And I need asking an important question to USA policy makers, Do you think that the free market economy still the right economy? Also, Is the disposal of the real economy based on industry and agriculture was the biggest economic curse that facing USA economy now?

أخيرا، أين هو دور منظمات حقوق الإنسان في مثل هذه القضايا أو الفساد، مثل هذه المنظمات التى تتدخل في شؤون الدول الأخرى باستثناء الولايات المتحدة خصوصا “هيومن رايتس ووتش”!!!، وسياسة الولايات المتحدة الخارجية الحالية القذرة، وكذلك، أين هو اليسار في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية؟ وأنا بحاجة لتوجيه سؤال مهم لصناع السياسة الأمريكية، هل تعتقدون أن اقتصاد السوق الحر لا يزال الاقتصاد السليم؟ أيضا، وهل التخلص من الاقتصاد الحقيقي الذى يقوم على الصناعة والزراعة هو أكبر لعنة اقتصادية تواجه الاقتصاد الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية الآن؟

I need really answers from your side because USA should study the experiences of other states e.g. China, Iran and Russia in building a strong economy, cooperate with them, and fix their economy based on the real elements of developing economy not superficial ones.

أنا حقا بحاجة إلى إجابات من جانبكم لأن الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية يجب أن تدرس تجارب الدول الأخرى مثل الصين وإيران وروسيا في بناء اقتصاد قوي، والتعاون معهم، وإصلاح اقتصادهم بالإعتماد على العناصر الحقيقية لتنمية الاقتصاد النامية لا السطحية منها.

Ahmed Moustafa
Economic and Political Researcher

أحمد مصطفى
باحث اقتصادى وسياسى

 

أحمد مصطفى: العلاقات المصرية الروسية – Ahmed Moustafa: Egyptian Russian Relations

November 19, 2013

أحمد مصطفى: العلاقات المصرية الروسية
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بداية/
ترجع العلاقات القوية بين مصر وروسيا أهم جمهوريات الإتحاد السوفيتى السابق الى ما يقرب من 70 سنة مضت – وازدادت العلاقة بشكل قوى منذ عام 1955 منذ بداية طلب الزعيم عبد الناصر استيراد سلاح من تشيكسلوفاكيا سابقا نكاية فى الأمريكان الذين رفضوا صفقات السلاح وايضا استغلوا سطوتهم على صندوق النقد الدولى فى نيويورك لمحاولة فرض شروط مجحفة لبناء مشروع السد العالى الذى حمى مصر من اخطار الفيضان وايضا استطعنا من خلاله والى الان توليد الطاقة الكهرومائية منه لكافة ارجاء مصر وبالتالى كان رد ناصر على هذا الأمر هو تاميم القناة وان العالم ليس الغرب وليس الولايات المتحدة وخصوصا بعد العدوان الثلاثى على مصر فى عام 1956 حيث أن الروس دائما لا يقدمون دعم مالى للحلفاء او الشركاء الروس دائما يقدمون الدعم التقنى الفنى العالى المستوى وبالفعل شارك الروس فى بناء السد العالى بشكل مزهل والذى قيل عنه انه مشروع بناء اكثر من هرم من اهرام الجيزة الحالية فى اسوان وتلى التعاون المصرى الروسى بناء كل من مصانع الحديد والصلب بحلون بالقاهرة والذى استغلته القوات المسلحة المصرية فى بناء اكبر جيش عربى فى المنطقة الجيش المصرى وقامت عليه صناعة السيارات والمهمات العسكرية وغيرها وايضا مجمع صناعة الألومنيوم فى مدينة نجع حمادى فى محافظة قنا بالقرب من الأقصر – أيضا غالبية التسلح الذى خاض به الجيش المصرى حروبه والذى انتصر به على اسرائيل فى ظل قيادة الرئيس الراحل انور السادات كان ايضا روسى والذى اخذ اقوى قرار فى العصر المعاصر قرار الحرب على اسرائيل وهزيمتها ثم قل مستوى التعاون بين البلدين بطبيعة الحال فتجاه السادات لأمريكا انذاك كالقوى الأولى فى العالم على اساس لماذا لا نجرب الغرب والذى تسبب فى قتله عن طريق دعم الإخوان الذى اخرجهم من السجون لإستيعاب اليسار فى مصر كنوع من التوازن فكانوا مثل الأفعى شديدة السمية التى لدغت صاحبها.

لماذا روسيا هذه الأيام/

منذ ثورة 25 يناير كنا نريد استقلالية القرار فى مصر إلا ان مرتزقة الولايات المتحدة والمخابرات البريطانية (الإخوان) ركبوا على جثث الشهداء من الثوار المستقلين واستولوا على السلطة بترتيبات خليجية تركية امريكية – حيث كنا نريد لمصر ان تدخل فى القوى الكبيرة التى لم تتاثر بحروب امريكا التى خاضتها زورا وكذبا هى والناتو ضد ما يسمى كذبة “الإرهاب الذى ابتكروه” لتبرير تخريب العالم والتى تملك الطاقة وتملك احتياطيات مالية كبيرة والتى تتعامل معنا كشريك ليس كمتلقى لمعونات وكان منها بكل تأكيد روسيا والصين وايران وغيرها من بعض دول اوروبا كالدول الإسكندنيافية المستقلة عن اليورو ونيوزيلاند وربما كندا وبالتاكيد دول امريكا اللاتينية بالكامل وعلى راسها فنزويلا والبرازيل والأرجنتين وكوبا وشيلى والتى لها تجارب مشابهة مع مصر – وهى دول لا ترغب فى التدخل فى الشان الداخلى للدول مثل غيرها – إلا ان واتتنا فرصة 30 يونيو وايضا خسارة كل العصابات الإرهابية فى سوريا التابعة للإخوان والوهابية والقاعدة ومنها عصابة الحر وداعش والنصرة بفضل التعاون المخابراتى الروسى الإيرانى السورى والذى بفضله تمت اقالة كل من باتريوس مدير المخابرات السابق فى امريكا وكذلك هيلارى كلينتون وايضا فضيحة سنودن والتى كان للروس فضل كبير فيها وايضا حسم روسيا للوضع السورى من خلال مبادرة التخلص من السلاح الكيماوى السورى (إن وجد) لأن سوريا موقعة على اتفاقية الحظر منذ عام 1997 – ايضا الرد الروسى القوى من بوتين عندما لوحت امريكا بقرارها الفاشل بفرض عقوبات اقتصادية على مصر ومنع المعونة الأمريكية العسكرية – وقال للأمريكان صراحة إلا مصر – وايضا قال ان مصر من حقها الحصول على كل ما تريد عوضا عن هذه المعونة وخصوصا فى التسلح وقد كان بالزيارة الأخيرة من الوزيرين الخارجية والدفاع واتضح حاجة روسيا لأكبر شريك فى المنطقة واكبر دولة فى المنطقة ومحور ومفتاح لقارة افريقيا لأن لا زال تواجد الروس فى افريقيا محدود فى حين أن كل من الصين وتركيا وايران والهند والكيان الصهيونى لهم تواجد كبير فى افريقيا واتضح ذلك من مكالمة الرئيس الأخ العزيز فلاديمير بوتين من مكالمته اول امس مع الرئيس عدلى منصور – ولحاجة روسيا ايضا لتواجدها بالمتوسط كبعد جيواسترتيجى فى المياه الدافئة لعمل توازن بالمنطقة والعالم من حيث تعادل القوى وهذا افضل للعالم كله حتى لا يكون هناك انفراد بالقرار العالمى.

ما هى أوجه التعاون بين الجانبين/

يرجى العلم ان حجم التعاون التجارى الحالى بين مصر وروسيا يقدر بحوالى 3 مليار دولار وهذا مبلغ ضئيل جدا بالنسبة للتعاون بين دولتين كبار فى حجم مصر وروسيا

الجانب الأمنى والمخابراتى:
طبعا هناك جانب امنى ومخابراتى يرتبط بالجانبين فيمنا يتعلق بالحرب على الإرهاب المتمثل حاليا فى مطاردة الجيش للجماعات الإخوانية المسلحة والوهابية والقاعدة التى ادخلت عن طريق الإخوان وحماس بدعم خليجى للأسف وتركى وامريكى وايضا روسيا محاطة بجمهوريات الكومنولث الإسلامى وببعض دولها خلايا للأسف للقاعدة والإخوان والتى قامت بالتفجيرات مؤخرا داخل موسكو وفى ضواحيها من الشيشان وداغستان وغيرها وأيضا فى الشأن السورى والليبى من تهريب سلاح من حدود ليبيا وبالتالى لأن هناك تنظيم دولى للإخوان والقاعدة وهم فى حال تحالف فالتعاون المخابراتى والأمنى مطلوب لكسر شوكة هذا التيار الذى كان له اطماع عالمية وكان يعتمد على تركيا وقطر فى المنطقة لإشاعة الفوضى التى تنمو من خلالها الهيمنة الأمريكية وأعتقد ان ايران ستدخل بقوة داخل هذه الثنائية لعلاقتها القوية بروسيا ولحرب ايران ضد هذه التيارات وبدليل منع “إسماعيل هنية من دخول ايران لسوء تصرفات مخيم اليرموك وحماس داخل سوريا التى احتضنتهم سوريا 15 سنة فى حكم الأسد الأب والإبن ولضلوع حماس فى تخريب العلاقة بين ايران ومصر”.

الجانب الحربى:
تزويد الجيش المصرى ببعض الطائرات الجديدة وبعض قطع الدفاع الجوى والمروحيات المتطورة وهى من اكبر صفقات السلاح التى يمكن ان تحصل عليها من مصر من دولة اجنبية فى حجم روسيا الآن وبشروط ميسرة ولكنى لا اعتقد ان تدفع السعودية قيمة الصفقة لأن مواقف الروس والسعودية شديدة التنافر خصوصا فيما يتعلق بسوريا وإيران طبعا.

جانب الطاقة:
لماذا الطاقة لأن أى مستثمر فى الداخل او الخارج أهم النقاط التى تهمه هى عنصر الطاقة لأن الطاقة هى محرك الإستثمار الأول والإقتصاد وتوافر الطاقة احد أهم عناصر الجذب الإقتصادى.
اول مشروعات الطاقة التى يجب مناقشتها وتفعيلها بين الروس ومصر المشروع النووى المصرى بالضبعة وخصوصا للخبرة الروسية الكبيرة فى هذا المجال سواء داخل روسيا او خارجها ولهم خبرات كبيرة وعالية سابقا مع كل من الصين والهند وايران ودول اخرى اهمها حاليا كلا من بنجلاديش والأردن ولكن كما نعرف ان الروس دائما فى مثل هذه المشروعات يدخلون بالملف التنفيذى الفنى كمقاول منفذ لصاحب المشروع وبأفضل المواصفات وهم لهم سابقة اعمال جيدة مع المصريين تتمثل فى السد العالى ومجمع الألومنيوم ومصانع الحديد والصلب فى حلوان.
اما التمويل فبكل صراحة توجد جهة واحدة ووحيدة فقط هى التى يمكن ان تمول مصر وبافضل شروط وأنا اعرفها جيدا بعيدا عن الدخول فى جو مناقصات وخلافه لأن القوى الغربية والدول العربية فى اعتقادى لديهم رفض ضمنى ليكون عند مصر هذا المشروع والذى سيرفع مصر تقنيا وعلميا من مستوى لمستوى اخر تماما مثل ايران التى تتحدى العالم لما وصلت له من تقنيات نووية بفضل الروس وتوجد شركة “روس أتوم” المتميزة فى هذا المجال.
ويوجد ايضا تطوير المحطات الكهربائية الحالية وتحويلها من نظام المازوت الملوث للبيئة إلى نظام الغاز والروس والإيرانيين متقدمين جدا فى هذا المجال وهذا المشروع سيوفر ضعف الـ ثلاثمائة ميجا عجز فى الطاقة الكهربائية يمكن استغلالهم فى مجالات تنموية اخرى.
أيضا طاقة الميثان من القمامة والمخلفات البشرية ويوجد بالفعل شاب مصرى ابتكر البكتريا الفعالة التى تحول القمامة لأقصى قدر من الطاقة فى هذا الوقت فى العالم ويمكن التعاون معه وهذا كان مشروع لى فى 2010 قدم كإقتراح فى قمة عمالة الشباب بالسويد.

فى المجال الصناعى
هناك مجالات مهمة جدا صناعيا يمكن التعرف عليها مثلا كمجال السبائك الذى تطورت فيه روسيا بشكل كبير جدا ومكنها من انتاج افضل خطوط انابيب بترول فى العالم وحديد صلب يستغل فى الإنشاءات والبنية التحتية والذى فيه استغلت المصانع الحربية الروسية فشاركت فى الجانب المدنى بهذه السبائك المهمة والدليل خطوط نقل الغاز الروسية.

فى التعليم والتدريب والبحث العلمى
اعتقد ان التعليم الروسى حاليا من افضل واهم واجود انواع التعليم فى العالم وعليه بيرجى فتح الباب مرة اخرى بين برامج التبادل الطلابى والشبابى وبرامج تبادل الباحثين والدارسين والخبراء والجامعات والمعاهد البحثية واقامة ابحاث مشتركة والميزة فى الروس ان مجالات التعاون لا تقتصر فقط على المجالات التقنية والطبيعية بل تمتد ايضا للمجالات الأدبية والفنية مثلما كان يحدث فى الخمسينات والستينات والسبعينات من القرن الماضى فى كافة المجالات.

كذلك ابحاث الفضاء
والتى هى موضوع عالى الأهمية ويمكن من خلالها التعرف على خرائط مصر الجيولجية ومصادر المياه المحتملة ومصادر البترول والغاز الجديدة والمعادن الهامة التى تساعدنا فى التنمية والصناعة وكذلك استخدامها فى مجال الإتصالات والأمن.

فى مجال الزراعة والغذاء
اولا دعم مصر فى شراء القمح اللازم لتغطية العجز فى القمح المزروع حيث ان روسيا من اهم واكبر دول العالم المنتجة للقمح فى العالم ومن اجود الأنواع وأفضل من القمح الذى يأتينا من المعونة الأمريكية حتى لا نكون تحت رغبة امريكا ويمكن التعرف على الكيفية التى وصلوا بها لذلك وتوفير الميكنة اللازمة الحديثة التى يمكن استخدامها فى هذه الزراعة وافضل البذور التى يمكن تطويرها من خلال التعاون البحثى واستيراد الميكنة الزراعية الحديثة التى تيسر عمل المزارعين.

ايضا فى مجال الصيد
وهو مجال لم يتحدث عنه احد وللروس خبرات كبيرة بمجال الصيد وتطويره وزيادة الثروة السمكية تكون بديلا للمصريين عن اللحوم الحمراء فى حالة ارتفاع اسعارها فيمكنهم مثلا تطوير بحيرة ناصر والبحيرات المصرية وانشاء شركة صيد اسماك بمستوى محترم تنج السماك منها باسعار فى متناول المستهلك المصرى العادى والفقير.

ومن المجالات التى لم يتكلم فيها احد تطوير الموانى ووسائل النقل البحرى والسكك الحديدية
حيث ان اسطول النقل البحرى المصرى يتهاوى وتتضائل سفنه وبالتالى يتم الإستغناء عن كل الخبرات المصرية فى هذا المجال العالمى أو يتم استقطابهم فى اساطيل بحرية عربية او اجنبية دون التطوير وتتآكل خبراتنا فى اهم مجال نقل فى العالم وللروس باع طويل فى بناء السفن وتطوير طواقم البحارة واساطيلهم وسفنهم ملء السمع والبصر بالرغم من محدودية البحار التى يطلون عليها او بحار صغيرة كبحر قزوين والبحر الأسود وبالتالى لمساعدتنا ودعمنا لسفنهم بالبحر المتوسط يمكن ان نقوم بعمليات تطوير موانى مشتركة وتطوير للأسطول بما سيعود بالنفع على الجانبين وايضا فى مجال السكك الحديدة التى طورتها كل من روسيا وايران بشكل كبير واصبح لديهم خطوط سكك حديدية من افضل الشبكات فى العالم الأمر الذى جعل الرئيس بوتين من خلال قمة سان بطرسبرج الإقتصادية فى يونيو الماضى من التنويه عن مشروع سكك حديد سيبيريا والتى ستربط اوروبا باسيا من خلال السكك الحديد ولكن هذا المشروع ليس كما يتوقع البعض سيؤثر على قناة السويس لانه سيتطلب وقتا فى التنفيذ ولأن الطاقة الإستيعابية لأى قطار لا تنافس النقل البحرى واسعاره التفضيلية الا انه سيعود بالنفع الكبير على روسيا طبعا وهذا طموح اقتصادى مقبول من الرئيس بوتين فى هذه الفكرة وعليه ايضا يمكن للروس ان يطوروا سكك الحديد المصرية واقامة مصنع مشترك لتصنيع القاطرات ووحداتها طبقا للمواصفات العالمية كما هو موجود فى روسيا وايران حاليا حيث تستخدم فى تصنيعها السبائك الجديدة التى نوهنا عنها وطورتها المصانع الحربية الروسية.

الفنون والثقافة
اتمنى ان تعود عروض البلشوى الروسى مرة اخرة لمصر من خلال دار الأوبرا وكما ارى ان كثير من فرق المسرح فى اوروبا وامريكا تتسابق على التعاون مع الروس فى المسرح والباليه والرقص لوجود دعم روسى مالى وفنى كبير فى هذا المجال وهذا بدوره يدر دخل على المؤسسات الثقافية المصرية والفنانين المصريين لوجود قطاع عريض من الشعب المصرى يحب هذه الفنون الرفيعة – ايضا دعوة مصر من خلال معارض الكتاب والمعارض الفنية ومهرجانات السينما الروسية الكبيرة وبالمثل من الجانب المصرى كما كانت العلاقة بيننا فى العهد الناصرى وقبل رحيل المخلوع مبارك – جدير بالذكر ان روسيا وايران والصين دول طبيعتها شرقية لذا فهى قريبة منا فى العادات والسلوك ولها تجارب ثقافية وحضارية محترمة.

اما من الجانب السياسى والجيواستراتيجى
روسيا حاليا هى مفتاح الملف السورى فى الشرق الأوسط وبوتين حصل بكل جدارة على افضل رئيس عام 2013 بلا منافس لإختلاف سياسات بوتين داخليا وخارجيا عن ميدفيدف الأضعف بكثير – روسيا الدولة الأولى فى العالم فى تصدير النفط والغاز متفوقة على كل من السعودية وايران وقطر وليس هذا فقط بل تصنيعه وتصفيته ايضا وتكريره – فروسيا هى الدولة التى يمكن ان تستانف العلاقات الودية بين العالم العربى وايران فى الوقت الحالى للعلاقة القوية والشراكة ما بين روسيا وايران وخصوصا مع وجود رئيس ايرانى جديد وذلك مع وجود وزير الخارجية الثعلب الكبير “لافروف” وبالتالى يتم التخلص من عبء التسلح والتوتر والحرب الباردة الإيرانية الخليجية كون ايران اقوى دولة سواء على الخليج وفى جنوب جزيرة العرب وصولا لحدود افريقيا وبحرى عمان وخليج عدن – فروسيا كما ستحل المشكلة السورية من خلال حل سلمى سياسى سواء عن طريق جنيف 2 او غيرها كما هو جارى وحفظوا ماء وجه أمريكا – هى الدولة الوحيدة ويمكن بالتعاون مع الصين ان تحل التوتر العربى الإيرانى فى ظل ما يسمى “أمن الخليج” وهذا الموضوع ايضا لم يتم طرحه من قبل الوفود المصرية ولا فى القمة العربية الإفريقية فى الكويت.

أحمد مصطفى – باحث اقتصادى سياسى

Ahmed Moustafa: Violations against Shia Minorities

November 19, 2013

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Presented by:-

Ahmed Moustafa

Member of Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (www.codesria.org)

Member of Alexandria International Arbitration Center & Alternative Dispute Resolution Methods

(www.aiacadrs.net)

Socio-economic Specialist/Researcher/

Legal Translator, Human Rights Activist/Blogger/Youth Trainer

International Law Association (ILA) Coordinator in Egypt

Mob/Cell: 002-0100-9229411

Email: solimon2244@yahoo.com

Solimon146@hotmail.com

URL: https://intellecto.wordpress.com

http://www.proz.com/profile/1104929

https://www.facebook.com/solimon.solimon

 

Abstract

 

Frankly speaking, I do not know what supposed to be said in this time being when we have international organizations, universities, research centers, media, places for worship and schools, all made to build the good human being and raise perceptual and cognitive development of him/her, and despite all such institutions and this amazing scientific research, which made the human reached and made him flying and landing on the moon and make a big discovery of the secrets of the universe, as well as nanotechnology and the revolution of communication that made two friends from different continents can chat together live with camera, all of this accumulation of civilization supposed to connect and unite the peoples worldwide, however, as much as civilization accumulated, as much as unfortunately the humanitarian hostility and hating are growing between peoples, whether based on sex, on color or the worst one on the ethnicity and religion.

 

It is worthy to be said that the west created the sectarian dispute, when USA felt in 1970s that it is the supreme power worldwide, when such matter was parallel with the Egyptian and Syrian victory on Israel in 1973, USA for the first time defused the Lebanese sectarian dispute (planned by Kissinger) to protect Israel from any regional war, which extended since 1976 until 1991 and this case incurred Lebanon US$ 15 Billion, it was the first time to hear according to the sect, this is Sunni, this is Shia, this is Maroni and this Druze, in this paper I shall highlight the matter of segregation against Shia minorities in the world that escalated recently, through the introduction and the objectives of this paper, giving comparative cases in several states and how the west use the fear of Shia in achieving its targets in our Arabic and Islamic world, finally give some conclusions that may lead us to better future based on humanitarian diversity, mutual respect and acceptance.

 

The objective:-

 

To measure and to monitor how much Shia sect is accepted worldwide and how much they are safe and empowered with the other Muslim sects in society, as well as how much Sh ia participated actively in the human development worldwide through one of the projects that adopted be the United Nations based on the Idea of the Ex-President of Iran Syed/ Mohamed Khatami “the Dialogue between Civilizations” as a response to what Huntington and Fokuyama mentioned in their writings “the Clash between Civilization” the subject that matching with the real virtues of Islam, disseminating the peace. Also to show how much a Muslim state with a majority of Shia, represented in Iran, is competing with the giant states in the world and present a model in arts, scientific research and the empowerment of woman, the matter to which most of the states worldwide are suffering from the lack of empowerment of woman.

 

Definitions:-

 

·       Shia: It means a Muslim sect that composed of the people who love and follow Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) the prophet of Islam, adore and respect his holly family members and their immaculate offspring (who called “Aal–Albeit”) until now, whereas the holly family of Aal-Albeit was consisting of this holly daughter Syedah/ Fatimah Al-Zahraa, one of the best 4 women in paradise, and her husband Syed/ Ali Ibn Abi Taleb the cousin of Prophet Mohamed, the first boy, who believed in him as a prophet of Islam, and also he was his luckiest cousin, who reared and grown in his house, as well as a good warrior/gladiator in the most important battles against Islam, a perfect wise judge has a lot of maxims and adages in the history, in addition, the 4th Caliph of Muslims after the death of his cousin Prophet Mohamed.

 

·       Al-Hussein: the son of both Syedah/ Fatimah Al-Zahraa, and her husband Syed/ Ali Ibn Abi Taleb the cousin of Prophet Mohamed, who killed and was the martyr of justice in Karpalaa, Iraq, as he was fighting the corruption of Caliph Moaweyah Ibn Abi Soufiane when he wanted to inherit the ruling to his son Yazid to be his successor as a new caliph without submitting to the principle of Shoura/the circulation of decision among the wise people and sheikhs to select and approve the new caliph, which was made since the existence of prophet Mohamed and that represents the indirect presidential elections in this time being, therefore, Hussein is considered the first rebel in the history, when he frankly refused the inheritance of ruling as a kind of political corruption and from such time he is a the best model for shia worldwide.

 

·       The Husseineyah: the place where the Shia practicing their worships and prayers, as well as has a big role in developing the culture and the awareness of Shia and their followers.     

 

The reasons of hating Shia:-

 

·       External Reason: American pressures since the Islamic revolution in Iran in 1979 and dismissing the US diplomatic commission from their embassy in Tehran after the American attack to breakthrough the embassy in Tehran to release its staff, because the new regime of Syed Ayat Allah Khomeini was against the US interference, not like the ex-regime of the Shah who was with US interference in Iranian policy and dependency on USA as Iran was a part of Baghdad Pact. Therefore when the model of the sectarian dispute succeeded in Lebanon that made by Kissinger the US Secretary of Foreign Affairs from 1975 to protect Israel from any regional war, accordingly USA made its strategy with the Iranian case based on a double impact, growing the sectarian dispute between Shia represented in Iran and Sunna represented in GCC states by pressures on the regimes of GCC states, despite such states including a lot of Shia, and some of them may be Shia sect representing the bigger slice of the population e.g. Bahrain, as well as pushing the Iraqi regime to involve in a war against Iran also to get rid of two important Islamic powers and armies (Iranian and Iraqi Ones).

·       Media Impact: Media is very important element and tool whether to praise or to deform anything, therefore USA and GCC media have agreed to use non-objective and irrational media against Iran indirectly by using this sectarian dispute against Shia by highlighting that in Shia sect Sheikhs/clergy men and Syeds insult the companions of Prophet Mohamed, as well as the mothers of Muslim believers some of the wives of Prophet Mohamed especially Lady/Aisha and Lady/ Hafsah, the matter that made the majority of Sunna peoples feel hostility towards Shia, not only that but also, it was for the favor of the regimes and royal families of the GCC states, because it made their people forget their fundamental rights, as well as Iran is trying to disseminate Shia sect in the whole Arab world maliciously, which is untrue, despite Iran in the last year had about US$ 40 Billions of mutual trade, investments and business with GCC states.

·       Moral Impact: Also the Sunna sheikhs defused maliciously among the crowds of Sunna that Shia always practicing the Enjoyment/Motaa marriage; which is not illicit, because some Imams permitted it and some not, because it is similar to the ordinary marriage, however it is a marriage with a determined period of time; however the clergy men of Sunna specially the Wahhabis and the Salafis adopted by GCC states alleged that is immoral marriage based on exchanging wives and not respecting the codes and terms of the right marriage, which is untrue at all.                           

        

Giving comparative cases of the situations of Shia regionally and internationally:-

 

·       Egypt & Syria

By reviewing some figures, the number of Shia in Egypt is about 2 millions distributed on Lower and Upper Egypt, most of them adopting Gaafari doctrine, which has been approved by Sheikh Al-Azhar (Mr. Shaltout) since 1950s, the shia were surviving without problems till the time of the ex-regime of Mubarak and the current regime of Brotherhood, despite the relationship with Iran is resumed since the success of our revolution. As all know that Egypt is the scale holder in Arab and Islamic world, therefore when something occurred in or to Egypt its impact will be unlimited and extends to the other states in the region, therefore the other peoples in the area in all of Libya, Yemen and Bahrain inspired by the Egyptian revolution, and one of them was the Syrian people, however there were several mistakes in the Syrian uprising (not a revolution) we will not discuss it now, however when the official Syrian army made a remarkable and tangible progress and in few time will extend its control in all the Syrian region, as well as the near fall of the Justice and Development in Turkey, the Russian control on the Syrian situation, US wanted to find a quick substitute in the area, they found only Egypt and GCC, accordingly in 3 consecutive days there was escalation against Shia and Syria as Bashar the president is belonging to Alawies (Shia Doctrine) the regime in Egypt used Salafis and Wahabis to call for Jehad in Syria in mosques, as well as the adhoc statement of the Egyptian regime to boycott the relations with Syria immediately, consequentially some fanatics in Abu Al-Nomros (a small village in Giza), Egypt proceeded to the house of a Shie simple and innocent Hassan Shehata and killed him with other 3 innocent Shia in his house and then distorted their corpses with the silence of the existed police troops at the scene of the incident.

In addition the Shia in Egypt were deprived from having their Husseineyas, deprived from having their own ceremonies, having their own NGOs including clubs, political parties and association, they were merged with Suffies all the time especially in Upper-Egypt, they were all the time arrested or under arrest by the state security, and also were occurred and exposed all times to deformation, gossips and direct insult from the ordinary people who do not know their sect well.    

 

·       Bahrain

In Bahrain the situation is different, Shia represents about 65% of the population, we remember that in 1971, the whole islands had the choice whether to be a part of Iran, like Ahwaz the Arabs of Iran or to be an Arab kingdom, they preferred to be Arab kingdom under the ruling of Khalaf’s Royal Family, since 2001 they claimed and requested to transform the state to a constitutional kingdom like UK, because despite they are the majority in population there is no equality whether in their representation or in the state’s higher posts like Judiciary, whereas Shia in Bahrain having a substitute represented in strong NGOs, therefore they are very well organized, after the success of our peaceful revolution of Jan 25th, they were very energetic to do something similar and peaceful, therefore they decided on the end of Feb 2011 to set and protest in Dawar Loaloaa Square in Manama as the biggest square in Bahrain, which is similar to what was succeeded in Tahrir in Egypt, however the regime used arbitrary and abusively the AlJazeera Army in this matter to demolish this peaceful revolution and protests of the peaceful rebels, you cannot imagine  how much is the demolition occurred to Bahrain accordingly, not only that, most of the rebels and opposition in Bahrain that is not limited to Shia but including all other streams even some of the Sunna there, who disagree with the acts of the regime are tarnished and defamed always that their loyalty belongs to Iran, despite they are insisting that they are Arabs. Kindly know that all such matter was mentioned in the delegate of UNHRC’s report that called (Bassiouny’s Report).

 

·       Yemen

Also in Yemen, whereas the military interference of both KSA and USA against the people of southern Yemen (Houtheyeen) as they have a good relation with Iran and some of them belong to Shia, who are not agreeing with the Yemeni resolution after a strong peaceful revolution, and USA is always until now using the KSA southern borders to attack the southern Yemeni by automatic aerodromes and still killing innocent citizens there, not for the favor of Yemen but for the favor and the interest of both USA and KSA.

 

·       Pakistan & Iraq

A lot of Shia are being killed every day for the sectarian dispute that has been grown by the US since the existence of Al-Qaeda and afterwards Taliban, whereas both of them are fanatic and accepting and respecting the others despite Shia are Muslims, the situation of Shia in Pakistan very similar to the situation in Iraq, when we hear every week a very big explosion in Iraq always in the places of Shia and Husseinyas and such security catastrophe was the consequence of the US invasion since 2003, that grown the sectarian disputes among the sects and grown the mercenary and assassins business in Iraq to guarantee and warrant its existence for a very long time there to control the oil and gas big reservoir in Iraq.

 

·       Belgium

The last year in Brussels some Wahabies and Takfeeries exploded a Shia mosque and such attack or ballast caused several killed and injured victims from Shia inside such mosque, based on deformed information leaked to the conspirators who made such ballast.

 

Finally, we concise that such attacks against Shia minority are belonging to political clashes in between US and Iran, because Iran is an independent state and does not want to yield to USA and going on its Nuclear Project according to NPT treaty, therefore, USA used a strategy of pushing GCC states to attack Iran by proxy indirectly through attacking Shia and grow fanatics and terrorists worldwide to attack Shia to sustain the status of the sectarian dispute/No War No Peace, to keep control on the regimes, as well as the wealth of the Arab world and finally to keep the stability and the peace of its ally “Israel”.      

 

Conclusions:-

 

–         We have to keep the initiative of Syed/ Mohamed Khatemi “the former Iranian president” The Dialogue Between Civilizations, but it should include more categories of people represented in youth and clergy people of all religions and sects and should be adopted everywhere annually to fight fanaticism, sectarian dispute and hostility and elaborating applicable methods to fight such phenomena by the united nations, we know that there is some trials, however, it reaches only elites not more.

–         USA should be persuaded that it is not anymore the supreme power worldwide, and its anticipated wars against the illusion that called terrorism made the whole world suffering economically, because it spent in Afghanistan attacks and Iraqi War about US$ 12 Trillion (US$ 300000/Minute), therefore USA cannot be anymore the supreme power worldwide, and USA has to adopt a conference between Iran and the Arab States for settling the current situation based on the security of the gulf, despite the normal diplomatic relations with Iran and big business and investments between the two sides that reached US$ 40 Billion.

–         USA has to recognize the right of Iran in the peaceful use of the nuclear power of Iran according to NPT, as well as obliging Israel to ratify such treaty, not only that but also, obliging Israel to allow IAEA committee to inspect its nuclear reactors to verify whether Israel producing Mass Destruction Weapons or not.

Kindest regards,

 

Ahmed Moustafa

Economic & Political Researcher        

 

Ahmed Moustafa: the Corruption of IMF & WB and its negative impact on Egypt

February 25, 2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

Image

The Corruption of the International Institutions

IMF & WB

 

Prepared by:

 

Ahmed Moustafa

Socio-economic Specialist/Researcher/Legal Translator at (www.eldibadvocates.com)

Human Rights Activist/Blogger/Youth Trainer

International Law Association (ILA) Coordinator in Egypt

Work Tel: 002-03-4950000

Mob/Cell: 002-010-9229411

Email: solimon2244@yahoo.com

            Solimon146@hotmail.com

URL: https://intellecto.wordpress.com

URL: http://www.proz.com/profile/1104929

URL: http://www.facebook.com/reqs.php#/profile.php?id=587381054&ref=name


An Abstract

 

Corruption it is the misuse of entrusted power for private gain. The cost of corruption is four-fold: political, economic, social, and environmental. Whereas International Institutions like International Monetary Fund and World Bank is vulnerable to corruption for the following reasons: the hegemony of US in the world and control thereto on it, US$ dominance and unjustified reserves thereto, elaborating Ad-hoc planning and researches whereas its state has its own economic and political circumstances, issuing reports contradicting with the other international reports, losing control on money leakage whether in developed, developing or underdeveloped countries that are being addressed to corruption or laundry. Therefore, we will see here-after through this paper, with using the comparative methodology to compare in between several cases, how much such reasons affect negatively on Egypt as one of the developing countries and also as a case study here-in, accordingly, through definitions, the importance of the research and the objective thereof, diagnosing the reasons of such problem and finally trying to find proper solutions that may be used by any state to fight such corruption and providing better future for the coming generations in any country.

 

 


Definitions:-

 

What is corruption?

 

According to Transparency International (TI) definition of corruption, it is the misuse of entrusted power for private gain. TI further differentiates between “according to rule” corruption and “against the rule” corruption. When a bribe is paid to receive preferential treatment for something that the bribe receiver is required to do by law, constitute the former. The latter is the case when a bribe paid to obtain services the bribe receiver is prohibited from providing. [1]

 

What are the costs of corruption?

The cost of corruption is four-fold: political, economic, social and environmental losses

 

Background about the relationship between World Bank and Egypt:-

 

Egypt joined the World Bank in 1945. Since then, the focus of World Bank Assistance has been to foster sustainable economic growth and reduce poverty in the country. 

 

World Bank Country Assistance Strategy (CAS):

 

In June 2005, the World Bank adopted its new Country Assistance Strategy for Egypt covering the period 2005 – 2008.  Developed in close partnership with the Government of Egypt, the CAS focuses on areas where the Bank’s contribution will achieve results, such as improving the investment climate and enhancing economic, social and financial reforms. The Government of Egypt spelled out a long term vision of development which includes the twin goals of achieving high and sustainable growth and the alleviation of poverty and income disparity. Its five-year national development plan seeks to achieve growth by making more use of the private sector as a catalyst for development, as well as changing the role of the government in managing the economy.

 

In response to these national goals, the current CAS is aimed at supporting three key development objectives — facilitating private sector development, enhancing the provision of public services, and promoting equity. To achieve these objectives, the strategy proposes a “results-based” financial assistance program in the range of about $2-2.8 billion dollars in support of enhancements in infrastructure, education, poverty alleviation, financial sector reforms combined with the Bank’s non-lending technical assistance, analytical and advisory services bringing world-wide experience and which focus on a variety of areas underpinning the reform program including poverty alleviation-targeted reforms.

September 2009 – Egypt is among the world’s 10 most active reformers for the fourth time. The country moved up to 106 from 116 among 183 economies worldwide in the overall ease of doing business ranking.

 

According to the recently released report by IFC and the World Bank “Doing Business 2010: Reforming through Difficult Times”, Egypt is Among the World’s 10 Most Active Reformers for the Fourth Time and made business start-up less costly, expedited the construction permit process, expanded the information available from the private credit bureau, and created commercial courts to speed up contract dispute settlements.

 

Egypt’s MDGs Country’s Report:

 

Egypt was one of 188 countries which embraced the MDGs and agreed to strive to meet these goals by 2015. In June 2002 the United Nations unveiled the first report on Egypt’s progress towards meeting the Millennium Development Goals, which was followed by the second and third reports in 2004 and 2005 respectively. Although the two reports indicated that Egypt remains on the right track to achieve the majority of MDG indicators, they also exposed the emergence of worrying gaps in income levels and living standards between Lower/Northern and Upper Egypt.

 

The MDG Reports show that the overall percentage of poor Egyptians will decrease from 25% in 1990 to 13% in 2015. However, they also show that while poverty in urban areas of Lower Egypt is expected to go down to 6%, the urban poor of Upper Egypt are actually expected to rise to 39% by 2015. The figures are just as stark for rural areas of the country – with poverty disappearing from the rural governorates of Lower Egypt but increasing to 38% in Upper Egypt in 2015. The Reports also demonstrate how poverty especially affects female-headed households which count for 20 % of total households. And while overall incomes in Egypt have increased from US$ 639 in 1990 to $US 1,390 in 1999, 40% of the poor only receive 22% of nation’s wealth.

 

The reports show that the Egyptian government continued to give attention to critical areas of development, such as health, education, access to water and sanitation as well as improving the livelihoods of the most deprived segments of the population. However, the pace of progress varies among the goals: fast and sustained in some areas (child and maternal mortality, water and sanitation), at acceptable levels for others (education and poverty reduction), while somewhat slowly in others (women empowerment and the environment).

 

In addition, Egypt will have to increase its efforts and investments in order to keep the current rate of progress with respect to some specific indicators (in the area of poverty, mortality rates, and combating major diseases). The third MDG report for Egypt (Egypt MDG Midpoint Assessment) was released in 2008.

 

 


Objectives:-

The objectives of this paper to make the economic researchers answer the following questions, as it is hard and difficult to indict and condemn any international financial institution after being tarnished with corruption and was a big reason to corrupt Egypt for example:-

 

1-      Is that possible to elaborate a monitoring and control system on the international institutions especially WB and IMF?

2-      Are big countries like USA and EU would accept such monitoring procedures and shall leave developing and under-developing countries to be a part of this tool whether Egypt or any other country?

3-      Are international institutions transparent enough, or need more pressure from the new international powers to yield to this request?

 

Does the Corruption of International institutions have an impact on the developing and under-developing countries?

 

In order to answer such problematic questions, the following reasons should be tackled:-

 

  • Hegemony of US worldwide and control thereto on International Institutions:

 

Without any doubt USA still controlling over most of the international organizations worldwide, especially UN and subsidiary institutions especially the World Bank (WB) and International Monetary Fund (IMF), in addition to some programs like United Nations Development Program (UNDP) who are responsible for creating and carrying out economic reform plans for both developing and under developing countries whereby Egypt is belonging to.

 

However, USA not anymore the economic model that should be followed according to their economic deficit and default to repair the bankruptcy of several giant industrial and financial groups and banks (e.g. Leman Broz, City Group, General Motors etc…) resulted by the uncontrolled credit system, the big corruption that occurred especially at the time of G.W. Bush in such sectors. In addition, the extreme liberal economic system that based on pragmatism without the appropriate existence of ethics and codes of social orientation.

 

Paul Wolfowitz’s appointment was also controversial, due to his influential role in architecting the US invasion of Iraq. A former member of staff at the World Bank also noted concerns of cronyism related to Wolfowitz’s appointment way before the scandal that forced him to resign.[2] The US nominee for the next president is the former US Trade Representative and currently an executive at Goldman Sachs, Robert Zoellick.

 

His nomination is also coming under criticism. Bush supports it, saying Zoellick “is the right man to succeed Paul in this vital work.” Former World Bank chief economist, and Nobel Prize winner for economics, Joseph Stiglitz feels that instead of a political appointee, it would be better to get an economist who understands development.[3]

 

As also reported by the BBC, Paul Zeitz, executive director of the Global AIDS Alliance, said that he thought Mr Zoellick was a terrible choice because “Zoellick has no significant experience in economic development in poor countries,” and that “he has been a close friend to the brand-name pharmaceutical industry, and the bilateral trade agreements he has negotiated [for the US] effectively block access to generic medication for millions of people.”[4]

 

  • US$ Dominance and unjustified reserves thereto:

 

At the heart of the problem is the US dollar-dominated international currency reserve-system. The accumulation of extensive foreign exchange reserves by some emerging market economies (China in particular) and excessive consumption by others (the United States in particular) are responsible for large and unsustainable global imbalances. [5]

 

US economic system and the international institutions represented in WB and IMF made some countries declaring its insolvency and bankruptcy, whereas the severe example was Iceland in 2008. Moreover, Greece 2010 and we expect more European states represented in Portugal, Spain and Ireland. And it was just as a result of adhering their economic systems to the American one.

 

Therefore, building up vast currency reserves has an opportunity cost: it diverts resources that could otherwise be used for productive investments in the real economy, exerts deflationary pressures on economies and generates monetary instability. This may be a price that countries are willing to pay, opting for regional initiatives in the absence of more systemic global solutions that work for them. As the past three decades have demonstrated, however, crises are intrinsic to a globalized economy, not exceptions to be treated on an ad hoc basis.

 

If you ask an official at the Central Bank of Egypt or at Ministry of Finance, he/she will be cheerful and answering that we have a reserve amounted to about US$ 34,5 billion[6], however, what is the feasibility of freezing a big amount like this without being used in real economic activity: Industry, Agriculture, Service or Trade. 

 

  • WB Elaborates Ad-hoc Development Plans and Researches:

 

There is much talk of transparency and participation, but the crunch comes in final negotiations between ministers and World Bank and IMF civil servants. The country manager can say to the Prime Minister, “unless you accept condition X, I will not submit this program to the board”. No agreed program means a sudden halt to essential aid and no debt relief, so few ministers are prepared to hold out. Instead Prime Ministers and presidents bow to the diktat of foreign civil servants. It is also noted that “reforms often bring advantages to some groups while disadvantaging others,” and one of the problems with policies agreed in secret is that a governing elite may accept an imposed policy which does not harm the elite but harms others. An example is the elimination of food subsidies. Whereas Hanlon and Pettifor, Christian Aid partners (a coalition of development organizations), argued that top-down “conditionality has undermined democracy by making elected governments accountable to Washington-based institutions instead of to their own people.” The potential for unaccountability and corruption therefore increases as well.[7]

 

Why WB did not propose a parallel developing plan for such alleged loser insolvent Egyptian Public Sector Companies instead of ad-hoc privatization and sale thereof?

 

Bearing in mind that ad-hoc sale and privatization of the Egyptian Public Sector Companies made the Egyptian people lose at least EGP 450 Billion, because the sale was done against only EGP 50 Billion, whereas the corrupted commissions thereof was about EGP 33 Billion, without exerting due diligence from the side of the world bank in this regard.[8]

  

Structural adjustment programs imposed by WB to lift the governmental subsidies in addition to leave the everything occurred to the free market mechanism (severe capitalism) without imposing a mechanism of control over this market e.g. urging the Egyptian government to affect free competition and consumer protections laws, made the rich monopolist people richer and the poor people poorer, whereas such phenomenon is very evident not just in Egypt but in all of Middle East & North Africa region. (Even Euro-Med Partnership faced the same destiny)

 

  • Contradiction of International Reports:

 

The reports that issued each year about the economic growth showing contradicted results sometime alleging that Egypt is running in the right track of economic reform and achieved a reputable growth (such assumed growth is intangible for no reasons).

 

Sometimes not, however we notice that when we adopt the World Economic Forum (Rich People Summit) here in Sharm El-Sheikh and spending about (EGP 100 Million) each time, WB issues good reports about us!!!!!!!!!.

 

However, a respected organization as International Transparency showing annual logical figures ascertaining that our area including Egypt (Rank No. 115 according to the latest statistics) still near to the bottom of their Classification/List. Furthermore, another factor ascertaining that assumption represented in that our universities still away from being in the best 500 universities worldwide including American Universities existing here, in addition to Cairo and Alexandria Universities.

 

Also the quality of life indicators showing figures similar to the above mentioned information about us.[9]

 

  • Indebtedness & Money Leakage:

 

Much of the debt burden of developing countries including Egypt has arisen through irresponsible lending practices. In the context of the current crisis, countries are in debt due to a crisis they didn’t cause — and there is an urgent need to assess and cancel these odious debts. Indeed, governments and civil society organizations are conducting audits to identify these debts. In the longer term, a renewed debt cancellation initiative should ensure future lending is responsible and transparent, and establish a fair, transparent and sovereign debt restructuring mechanism.

 

Over $600 billion, or nearly three times the current levels of external debt of sub-Saharan Africa, has leaked from the continent in illicit financial flows since 1975. 20 Global Financial Integrity estimates that globally US$500-800 billion of illicit flows exit developing and transitional economies every year. The Tax Justice Network has estimated that “wealthy individuals hold $11.5 trillion offshore in secrecy jurisdictions”. Furthermore, Christian Aid estimates that developing countries including Egypt lose around $160 billion each year in tax revenue as a result of secrecy jurisdictions — more than 30 percent higher than the amount of aid given by northern donors in 2008.

 

While the G20 has begun to address the issue of tax havens, the UN Commission of Experts on the Financial and Monetary System has noted the G20’s approach through the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has led to, “discriminatory targeting of small international financial centers in developing countries while a blind eye is turned to lax rules in developed economies.”

 

In fact, the Commission notes that, “the principal sources of tax evasion, tax secrecy, money laundering, and regulatory arbitrage [are] located in developed countries’ on-shore banking systems, such as Delaware in the United States and the City of London.[10]

 

Comparative cases of WB corruption:-

 

Perhaps the figures of WB corruption in Egypt not yet disclosed, however there is another examples and figures for such corruption in similar cases in our continent were published by some former officials of WB e.g. Steve Berkman in his book the World Bank and the Gods of Lending that published in June 2008.

 

Berkman reports how Nigerian officials charged $2,200 for 18 cups of tea and snacks at a roadside stall under a World Bank loan (and got away with it). A project office with eight staff in the same country charged a switchboard for 60 telephones, 48 air conditioners, 14 shredders and 12 refrigerators to the operating expenses of another Bank project – all at prices well above the going market rates. They also claimed expenses for television and video sets at 249,999 Naira apiece – more than ten times the equipment’s street value, but just one Naira less than the amount which triggers stricter controls.

 

In a gripping chapter, Steve Berkman takes us on a trip to The Gambia, a poor West-African country. We travel there to investigate suspicions of corruption in a $12.3 million agricultural services project in 1998. The very first payment under the project was for four Japanese cars – a transfer of $95,700 in Danish kroner to a bank account on the Bahamas. The cars are nowhere to be found, and the company which supposedly sold them doesn’t exist. When the ministry responsible for the project finally provides the serial numbers of the cars in question, the Nissan corporation states that such cars were never produced.[11]

 

 

Conclusions:-

 

  1. Finally, it summarizes a number of policy measures for international tax cooperation that address capital flight, including the following:
  2. Adopting automatic information exchange procedures along the model adopted by the European Union;
  3. Promoting country-by-country reporting on accounts by multinational companies;
  4. Ensuring alternative sustainable development paths for jurisdictions that have become dependent on financial secrecy; and
  5. Giving countries the space to set their own domestic fiscal policy and supporting stronger tax authorities in developing countries.
  6. A two-year moratorium on all external debt service payments of developing countries including Egypt, for example, would free up additional resources in the amount of US$30.5 billion annually for 64 of the world’s most indebted countries. This would be an effective way to release extra funds for critical social investment, while ensuring no additional debt would be incurred.

 

  1. Accordingly, I wonder why Americans handing over the Board of Directors (B.O.D) of such institutions whereas they were unable to solve their domestic severe economic crises? Why not new strong promising economies as China, Brazil, India, Asian Tigers and Turkey having bigger quotas in the quorum of (B.O.D) of such institutes? Why the developing countries also did not obtain the appropriate representation quota in such (B.O.D) of those institutes?

 

  1. World Bank, International Monetary Fund and Security Council have to be reformed according to the global hurricane of change that taking place worldwide now, because they are not credible and not able anymore to lead the world solely. However, we have to claim and push big countries to yield to our requests and such pressures shall never be existed without Arab-Arab Alliance, Arab-Afro Alliance and South-South Alliance and cooperation.

 

Bibliography:

 

1-      http://www.transparency.am/corruption.php#q1

 

2-      Fifteen years is Enough – what’s changed in the international financial system and its institutions, what hasn’t and what needs to – Halifax Initiative Coalition – March 2010

 

3-       Mohamed Hakki “Wolfowit’s at World Bank”, Counterpunch – March 2006

4-       US to replace Wolfowit’s swiftly – BBC May 18, 2007

5-       US nominates new World Bank Chief – BBC May 30, 2007

6-       Fifteen years is Enough – what’s changed in the international financial system and its institutions, what hasn’t and what needs to – Halifax Initiative Coalition – March 2010

7-       (1,7%) increase in the Egyptian Monetary Reservoir at the Central Bank of Egypt – May 3, 2010 http://www.currency-price.com/133

8-       Joseph Hanlon and Ann Pettifor, Kicking the Habit; Finding a lasting solution to addictive lending and borrowing—and its corrupting side-effects, Jubilee Research, March 2000

9-       Privatization program in Egypt is being transferred into a scandal – Fact International Studies Center Aug 22, 2007

10-   http://www.mercer.com/qualityoflivingpr#Mid_East_and_Africa

11-   Fifteen years is Enough – what’s changed in the international financial system and its institutions, what hasn’t and what needs to – Halifax Initiative Coalition – March 2010

12-   The World Bank and the Gods of Lending – Steve Berkman – June 2008


[2] Mohamed Hakki “Wolfowit’s at World Bank”, Counterpunch – March 2006

[3] US to replace Wolfowit’s swiftly – BBC May 18, 2007

[4] US nominates new World Bank Chief – BBC May 30, 2007

[5] Fifteen years is Enough – what’s changed in the international financial system and its institutions, what hasn’t and what needs to – Halifax Initiative Coalition – March 2010

[6] (1,7%) increase in the Egyptian Monetary Reservoir at the Central Bank of Egypt – May 3, 2010 http://www.currency-price.com/133

[8] Privatization program in Egypt is being transferred into a scandal – Fact International Studies Center Aug 22, 2007

[10]  Fifteen years is Enough – what’s changed in the international financial system and its institutions, what hasn’t and what needs to – Halifax Initiative Coalition – March 2010

[11] The World Bank and the Gods of Lending – Steve Berkman – June 2008Image

Ahmed Moustafa: the Political & Economic Expectations of 2013 – To The Point on Nile TV 01/01/2013

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Ahmed Moustafa: Daily Debate 31/10/2012 Amb Hussein Harridy & Ahmed Mostafa in Midde East Affairs

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Ahmed Moustafa: Talking about inter-cultural conflict, politics and economy concerning Egypt and Iran on Iranian Nasr TV

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Ahmed Moustafa on the first Internet TV in Iran talking in Arabic about post revolutions economy